Allergy – Types, Causes, Signs and Symptoms


Sneezing isn’t always the indication of a cold. In some cases, it is an allergic reaction to something within the air. Health specialists appraise that more than 35 million people suffer from upper respiratory tract symptoms, that are allergic responses to airborne allergens.

Pollen allergy, commonly called hay fever, is one of the foremost common chronic diseases Worldwide; airborne allergens cause the foremost issues for individuals with allergies. In general, allergic diseases are among the major causes of sickness and disability.

What is Allergy?

Allergies stem from an unseemly response of the immune system to certain proteins. These proteins are known as allergens, and they are usually common and safe substances such as dust, mold spores, various foods, insect venoms, or medications. The immune system is a complex system. When individuals with allergy diseases are exposed to common natural substances such as house dust mite, a sort of white blood cells produce particular antibodies known as IgE against that substance. This IgE at that point attaches itself to another sort of white blood cells and when the mast cells come into contact with that substance again, they start a complex immune reaction that leads to the hypersensitivity.

Types of Allergy

It is imperative to work together with your healthcare provider to form a plan to oversee your sensitivity. Maintaining a strategic distance from your allergens is the perfect way to anticipate an allergic reaction. There are numerous types of allergies. A few hypersensitivities are regular and others are year-round. A few allergies may be life-long.

  • Latex Allergy
  • Food Allergy
  • Insect Allergy
  • Pollen Allergy 
  • Pet Allergy
– Latex Allergy

An allergic response is an anomalous reaction of the immune system to an ordinarily harmless substance. The function of the immune system is to discover foreign substances, such as viruses and bacteria, and get rid of them. Ordinarily, this reaction ensures us from perilous maladies. Individuals with a sedate hypersensitivity have an over-sensitive immune system. Their safe system responds to the drug as if it were a trespasser.

– Food Allergy

There are two categories of Food Allergies.

Immunoglobulin E (IgE) Mediated Food Allergy:

Indications result from the body’s immune system making the antibodies called Immunoglobulin E (IgE) antibodies. These IgE antibodies respond with certain nourishment. The IgE mediated food allergies most common in newborn children and children are eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts, and wheat. The allergic response can include the skin, mouth, eyes, lungs, heart, intestine and brain. A few of the side effects can incorporate:

  • Stomach pain, diarrhoea and vomiting
  • Swelling of the lips, throat or tongue 
  • Shortness of breath and wheezing
  • Skin rash, hives and itching
Non-IgE Mediated Food Allergy

Most symptoms of non-IgE mediated food allergies include the digestive tract. Symptoms may be heaving and loose bowels. The symptoms can take longer to create and may last longer than IgE mediated allergy indications. In some cases, a response to a food allergen happens up 3 days after eating the food allergen.

– Insect Allergy

Numerous individuals think of warm climate when they think of insect sensitivities. Warm climate does signal the entry of a few undesirable visitors like stinging and biting insects. In any case, you’ll be able to discover two exceptionally common “bugs” all year long in homes and buildings. Not one or the other one should bite or sting you to cause an allergic response, but both triggers hypersensitivity and asthma in numerous individuals.

– Pollen Allergy

Pollen is one of the foremost common triggers of seasonal allergies. Numerous individuals know pollen hypersensitivity as “hay fever. In spring, summer and fall, plants discharge tiny pollen grains to fertilise other plants of the same species. Most of the pollens that cause allergic responses come from trees, weeds and grasses. These plants make little, light and dry pollen grains that travel by the wind. Grasses are the foremost common cause of hypersensitivity.

– Pet Allergy

Allergies to pets with fur are common, particularly among individuals who have other hypersensitivities or asthma. Individuals with dog allergies may be touchier to a few breeds of dogs than others. A few individuals may be allergic to all dogs. Individuals may think certain breeds of dogs are “hypoallergenic,” but a really non-allergic puppy or cat does not exist.

Most Common Food Allergies

Any food can cause an unfavourable response but the most common food allergies are:

  • Fish
  • Soy
  • Egg
  • Milk
  • Peanuts
  • Shellfish
  • Wheat
  • Tree nuts
  • Certain seeds, including sesame and mustard seeds, moreover are common food allergy triggers and considered a major allergen in a few nations.

Causes of Allergies in the body

Everyone has antibodies in the body. The antibody which causes an allergic reaction is called IgE. In an allergic individual, the immune system’s IgE can’t tell the distinction between threatening and non-threatening protein substances. The first time you’re exposed to a particular allergen, your body produces large amounts of IgE antibodies to work against that allergen. The antibodies join themselves to the cells containing histamine. After a rehashed introduction to the allergen, inevitably the histamine will be discharged in effective amounts, causing an invasion of hypersensitivity symptoms. While histamine is a critical chemical within the body, it can cause issues on the off chance that it is discharged within the wrong circumstance. Allergy symptoms are the body’s attempt to remove a substance it perceives to be dangerous.

Sign and Symptoms of Allergy

The signs and symptoms of airborne hypersensitivities are recognisable to many. Symptoms of an allergic response may include the skin, the gastrointestinal tract, the cardiovascular system and the respiratory tract. Some of them are as follow:

  • Sneezing, frequently with a clogged or a runny nose
  • Watering eyes
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Itching eyes, throat and nose
  • Shortness of breath
  • The pale or blue coloring of the skin
  • Allergic shiners like dark circles beneath the eyes caused by expanded bloodstream close the sinuses

Risk Factors

Risk factors for sensitivity can be set in two common categories, namely host and environmental factors. Host components incorporate heredity, sex, race, and age, with heredity being by far the most noteworthy. However, there have been later increments within the incidence of allergic disorders that cannot be clarified by genetic factors alone. Four major environmental candidates are modifications in the introduction to infectious illnesses amid early childhood, environmental pollution and allergen levels. The inclination to have allergic reactions or atopy is acquired. In case you have got 2 parents who are atopic, your chance of being atopic is 75%. The risk goes down to 50% in the event that you have got 1 atopic parent, and to 15% if neither of your parents is atopic. Environmental factors also have a part in deciding whether or not an individual gets to be atopic, and research is proceeding to decide whether there’s anything that can be done to anticipate an individual from becoming atopic.

Who Gets Allergies?

Anybody can get allergies at any age. You could develop them as a child; otherwise, you might not have any symptoms until you’re an adult. Allergies run in families. On the off chance that your parents have allergies, you likely will, as well. If parent is allergic, your chances go up. In both cases your chances are more than double. In case neither parent is allergic, there’s still a little chance you’ll get. You’ve got to have an inclination and be exposed to an allergen before you create hypersensitivity. The more intense the exposure is, the more frequently you come into contact with the allergen. Most individuals who develop adult-onset allergies usually do so in their twenties and thirties, in spite of the fact that it’s possible to develop them at any age.

How Allergy is diagnosed?

There are a few investigations that can be useful in patients with allergic infection:

  • Skin Prick Test
  • Blood Tests
  • Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)
Skin Prick Test

Skin prick tests against a wide variety of allergens are profoundly touchy and are the first line test to decide what allergens a patient is allergic to.

Blood Tests

Serum eosinophilia is regularly observed in patients with allergic disease.

Total serum IgE levels are elevated within the majority of patients with allergic infection.

These blood tests are not always diagnostic, but they can be valuable to determine the seriousness or severity of the allergic tendency.

Radioallergosorbent test (RAST)

Radioallergosorbent tests (RAST) identify serum levels of allergen-specific IgE. It is utilised when the history and skin prick test results are clashing, when skin prick testing cannot be performed, or when desensitisation is being considered.

Treatment For Allergies

Common types of allergy medicine incorporate antihistamines, decongestants, and corticosteroids. Specific sensitivity medicines are frequently tailored to particular allergic disease, especially skin inflammation, allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are, however, a few common treatment standards:

– Allergen Avoidance

With any allergy, your first method of treatment ought to be to avoid the offending allergen. Try to avoid the areas where allergens are in high concentration e.g. the stop in springtime where hay fever causing pollens are in high concentration or maintaining a strategic distance from cats or dogs. One of the most focuses on allergen evasion ought to be your bed and bedding. In case you’re allergic to dust mites, your bedding is crucial. There’s nothing more regrettable for an allergy sufferer than breathing in dust mite allergens all night long. Since dust is a major culprit in indoor hypersensitivities, it’s also vital to keep your home exceptionally clean. Running a dehumidifier inside can moreover be a supportive strategy of allergen avoidance, as overly humid air is good for both mold spores and dust vermin, two common allergens.

– Allergy Medications

Adrenaline incorporates a role in extreme allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis. Antihistamines block the impacts of the histamine that is ordinarily discharged during an allergic reaction. Common antihistamines incorporate a few over-the-counter drugs like Benadryl, Claritin, and Triaminic. Stronger, prescription drugs like Allegra can soothe symptoms like sniffling and itching, nasal swelling, and runny noses. Anti-inflammatory medicines designed to decrease the overzealous immune reactions seen in allergic infection, such as topical corticosteroids have a part in eczema, allergic rhinitis and asthma. Decongestants can be utilised to soothe sinus-related allergy symptoms like a stuffy nose. They are commonly utilised in nasal spray decongestants.

– Allergy Desensitisation

Desensitisation isn’t appropriate for all allergic infections. It is especially valuable for insect stings and drug allergies, where it is usually viable but less valuable for asthma or allergic rhinitis, where it is less successful. It is most valuable where there are a small number of hypersensitivities, such as only insect stings, and less valuable when there are multiple allergies.

Natural and Home Remedies to Treat Allergies

Feeling like allergies are getting the finest of you? You’re not alone. Particularly during the spring and summer, allergies can be overwhelming and make life fantastically awkward. Fortunately, allergy sufferers can find significant alleviation from natural remedies.

– Exercise or Workout

Exercise plays a key role in treating allergies. It produces an anti-inflammatory impact in your nasal passages, helping to normally diminish allergy symptoms. If dust counts are greatly high, an indoor workout will most likely be more beneficial because it will decrease re-exposure.

– Probiotics

Probiotics give the immune system a boost by introducing advantageous microbes into your digestive tract. A good source of the probiotics can be found in fermented foods, like kimchi. Kombucha is another extraordinary source of probiotics.

– Honey

Tragically, you can’t basically tell your body that grass and dust aren’t awful for it. But you can help your body learn that the local habitat isn’t dangerous. You do so by giving your body little dosages of the grass and dust that are aggravating it. This is where local honey comes in so helpful. Bees make their honey from what’s around. Thus, their honey contains trace amounts of the pollen that might be making you are feeling wiped out.

– Bee Pollen

Like honey, bee dust contains the natural substances where the bees live. It offers an elective way to introduce these substances to your immune system. Since sometimes we all need to include a little variety to our diets. Great sprinkled on the natural product or tossed in the salad, it offers a bit of a sweet crunch.

Foods to Take and Avoid

Some foods can make symptoms way better, and a few can make them more awful.

– Foods to Take

Hot drinks and soup, fish, fruits and vegetables, yogurt, nuts and healthy oils help control different types of allergies.

– Foods to Avoid

Raw fruits and vegetables should be avoided.

Allergy Prevention

Managing and preventing hypersensitivities can be tough but by utilising a few of these allergy prevention tips, you can move toward an allergy-free life. Massage can diminish symptoms by improving circulation, reducing anxiety and releasing muscle pressure. Good and dry ventilation, dry and clean dress storage within the closets and expulsion of damps from the house helps avoid sensitivities from molds. Exposure to the good probiotic bacteria in the newborn child diet. Consideration of the vitamins C and E, and omega-3 polyunsaturated oils in your diet.

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Author: Dr. Mehwish Sheikh

1 Response

  1. November 20, 2018

    […] 7.8% of people in the US over the age of 18 years, and about 10%-30% of people worldwide. It is an allergy to pollen and dust that causes itchy and inflamed mucous membranes of the eyes and nose. A runny […]

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